1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 thesis to the door of a castle church in Wittenburg, playing a key role in setting off the Protestant Reformation.
1519 Cortes begins his highly successful war of conquest against the Aztecs and other Latin American cultures.
1543 Nicolaus Copernicus dies, immediately after his work On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres is finished and published. The book brings awareness to the fact that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun – not the other way around.
1568-1648 80 Years War between the Calvinist/Protestant Netherlands and the Catholic Spanish Habsburgs.
1600 The English East India Company is established. As time went on the EEIC received full government powers. Traders became wealthy, leading to a new upper class in England.
1602 The Dutch East India Company is established. It is a monopolist corporation with the power to wage war independently of the the Dutch crown. For seven decades it is more powerful than English, Portuguese and Spanish rivals in the Far East trade. After that, England becomes the dominant player.
1606 Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon is the first westerner to discover Australia. Of course, the Aboriginals are already living here.
1615 The Roman Catholic church concludes that Copernicus’heliocentrism, the idea that the earth revolves around the sun, is false and forbids anyone, astronomer Galileo Galilei in particular, from advocating it. Galileo, who himself made significant contributions to the field of astronomy, is eventually placed under permanent house arrest for his continued support of Copernicus.
1648 Peace of Westphalia, ending the 80 Years War and the 30 Years War. Both were fought primarily between Catholic (Habsburg) interests allied with the Vatican and Protestant interests in northern and western Europe.
17/18th cent. Various wars between England, the Dutch Republic, France and Spain over religious interests and trade routes.
1733 The Russian Empire gains control of Ala


I am an Amateur Gynaecologist with a love of Maidenhair Ferns and a fondness for interpreting Vermeer's Paintings as Metaphors ...

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