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5️⃣ Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants; the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune are ice giants. Jupiter has been known to astronomers since antiquity.[13] The Romans named it after their god Jupiter.[14] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows,[15] and making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.

Jupiter Astronomical symbol of Jupiter
Jupiter and its shrunken Great Red Spot.jpg

Full-disc view of Jupiter in natural color in April 2014[a]
Designations
Pronunciation /ˈpɪtər/ (About this sound listen)[1]
Adjectives Jovian
Orbital characteristics[5]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 816.62 million km (5.4588 AU)
Perihelion 740.52 million km (4.9501 AU)
778.57 million km (5.2044 AU)
Eccentricity 0.0489
398.88 d
13.07 km/s (8.12 mi/s)
20.020°[3]
Inclination
100.464°
273.867°[3]
Known satellites 69 (as of 2017)
Physical characteristics[5][9][10]
Mean radius
69,911 km (43,441 mi)[b]
Equatorial radius
  • 71,492 km (44,423 mi)[b]
  • 11.209 Earths
Polar radius
  • 66,854 km (41,541 mi)[b]
  • 10.517 Earths
Flattening 0.06487
  • 6.1419×1010 km2(2.3714×1010 sq mi)[b][6]
  • 121.9 Earths
Volume
  • 1.4313×1015 km3(3.434×1014 cu mi)[b]
  • 1,321 Earths
Mass
  • 1.8982×1027 kg (4.1848×1027 lb)
  • 317.8 Earths
  • 1/1047 Sun[7]
Mean density
1,326 kg/m3(2,235 lb/cu yd)[c]
24.79 m/s2(81.3 ft/s2)[b]
2.528 g
0.254 I/MR2 (estimate)
59.5 km/s (37.0 mi/s)[b]
9.925 hours[8] (9 h 55 m 30 s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
12.6 km/s (7.8 mi/s; 45,000 km/h)
3.13° (to orbit)
North pole right ascension
268.057°; 17h 52m 14s
North pole declination
64.495°
Albedo 0.343 (Bond)
0.538 (geometric)
Surface temp. min mean max
1 bar level 165 K (−108 °C)
0.1 bar 112 K (−161 °C)
−1.6 to −2.94
29.8″ to 50.1″
Atmosphere[5]
Surface pressure
20–200 kPa[11]; 70 kPa[12]
27 km (17 mi)
Composition by volume by volume:

89%±2.0% hydrogen (H
2)
10%±2.0% helium(He)
0.3%±0.1% methane(CH
4)
0.026%±0.004% ammonia(NH
3)
0.0028%±0.001% hydrogen deuteride(HD)
0.0006%±0.0002% ethane (C
2H
6)
0.0004%±0.0004% water(H
2O)

Ices:

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a r