THESE PERIODS OF HISTORY ACT AS A BACKDROP TO MY ANTECEDENTS’ HISTORIES

 

The beginning of the early modern period

So when does the early modern period begin and end? The beginning of the early modern and thus the end of the medieval period (also called the Middle Ages) is associated with a group of fundamental changes that occurred in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.

  • In the field of ideas, this time saw a rebirth of interest in the writings of scholars from ancient Greece and Rome and a new emphasis on the use of observation as the basis of knowledge. This series of developments, called the Renaissance, in turn led to new ideas such as the model of the solar system with the sun at the centre while the planets revolved around it, proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
  • The spread of these new ideas was aided by the development of printing using movable type, devised by Johannes Gutenberg (c.1398–1468) in the 1450s.
  • There was also a significant change in the economy, with a decline in the number of people holding land under the feudal system. Instead of getting access to land in return for military service or unpaid labour, farmers paid rent in goods or money.
  • In religion, the power of the Catholic Church was challenged through criticism of its theology and practices, which ultimately led to the emergence of new Protestant churches.
  • Finally, around the same time, Europeans discovered cultures beyond Europe; the best-known voyage was that led by Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) which began the colonisation of the Americas.

The Age of Discovery Europe was a time of change
EARLY MODERN PERIOD 1500 – 1750
Enlightenment 1700 – 1800
Danish raids in the late 10th century/early 11th century culminated in the wholesale subjugation of England to Denmark under Canute the Great. Danish rule was overthrown the local House of Wessex was restored to power

shakespeare

cromwell

1558 ELIZABETHAN 1603

1500 The worldwide spread of the printing press meant a greater distribution of ideas that threatened the ironclad power structures of Europe.

In 1501, Pope Alexander VI promised excommunication for anyone who printed manuscripts without the church’s approval. Twenty years later, books from John Calvin and Martin Luther spread, bringing into reality what Alexander had feared.

Furthering that threat, Copernicus published his On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, which was seen as heresy by the church.

By 1605, the first official newspaper, Relation, was printed and distributed in Strasbourg. Newspapers appeared all across Europe, formalizing the printing press’ contribution to the growth of literacy, education, and the far-reaching availability of uniform information for ordinary people.

1509 ⭕️ Henry VIII

🔹1519 (2nd May) Death of LEONARDO in France, probably caused by a stroke

1547 ⭕️ Edward VI 

🔹1525 Pieter Breughal The Elder

1553 🔺Jane ⭕️Mary 

🔹1554 Walter Raleigh

1558 ⭕️ Elizabeth I (No Issue)

🔹1564 William Shakespeare (d.1616)

🔹1564 Galileo

Shrouded in a fogmire of religious ignorance

and against intense persecutory dogma,

Galileo, with grace, displaced us from our centric position.

And we are no longer the paradigm of Existence.

We are not central to the Universe, to this World nor indeed to Life itself.

1567 Monteverdi

1571 Caravaggio

1577 Rubens

🔹1588 Spanish Armada

👤1595 William Tompkyn (♥️G9Grandfather)

1596 Descartes

🔹1599 Oliver Cromwell (25 April)

1599 Van Dyck

<h4><span style=”color: #ff0000;”>TUDOR</span>
1485 ⭕️ Henry VII
1500 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (world pop 500m)
1509 ⭕️ Henry VIII
1547 ⭕️ Edward VI
🔹1525 Pieter Breughal The Elder
1553 🔺Jane ⭕️Mary
🔹1554 Walter Raleigh
1558 ⭕️ Elizabeth I (No Issue)
🔹1564 William Shakespeare (d.1616)
🔹1564 Galileo
1567 Monteverdi
1571 Caravaggio
1577 Rubens
🔹1588 Spanish Armada

The Age of Discovery was characterised by colonisation, expansion and exploitation.
experienced great changes  in understanding  the world. It was at this time that explorers discovered the world was not flat through the first circumnavigation of the earth. The exploration was the desire to seek new lands, set up new trade routes and to expand the Christian religion.
This was a period shaped by globalisation and movement of people.  ancient trade routes and earlier first movement of peoples  out of Africa.
happened much earlier … the nomadic urge and the need to fing better pastures

By the 15th Century however, the world became more globalised than ever before. Exploration led to the development of new trade routes and new understandings of distant lands outside of Europe.

Writing by printing c.1440

Caxton was the first English printer and a translator and importer of books into England.

Caxton was born in around 1422 in Kent. He went to London at the age of 16 to become an apprentice to a merchant, later moving to Bruges, the centre of the wool trade, where he became a successful and important member of the merchant community. From 1462 to 1470 he served as governor of the ‘English Nation of Merchant Adventurers’, which allowed him to represent his fellow merchants, as well as act as a diplomat for the king.

Caxton affiliated himself with the household of Margaret, the duchess of Burgundy, sister of the English king Edward IV. She became one of his most important patrons and encouraged him with his translation of ‘The Recuyell of the Histories of Troye’ from French to English. In the early 1470s Caxton spent time in Cologne learning the art of printing. He returned to Bruges in 1472 where he and Colard Mansion, a Flemish calligrapher, set up a press. Caxton’s own translation of ‘The Recuyell of the Histories of Troye’ was the first book printed in the English language.

In 1476 Caxton returned to London and established a press at Westminster, the first printing press in England. Amongst the books he printed were Chaucer’s ‘Canterbury Tales’, Gower’s ‘Confession Amantis’ and Malory’s ‘Le Morte d’Arthur’. He printed more than 100 books in his lifetime, books which were known for their craftsmanship and careful editing. He was also the translator of many of the books he published, using his knowledge of French, Latin and Dutch. He died in 1492.

 

The first printing press was a hugely significant step in creating an ever globalised society, allowing information to spread faster than ever before. The creation of trade routes to the West Indies and beyond led to the importation of exotic goods, such as spices. New sought after commodities arose, and connections across the globe helped form stronger nations across Europe.

Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan and Amerigo Vespucci were explorers par exc

Migrations at this time were not just driven by the desire to explore new lands, but also by religion and conflict.

Internally within Europe, many movements of people occurred between the 14th and 16th centuries as a result of religious strife.the ostracism of Jews from Spain in the late 1400s.

This era also saw a significant movement of Protestants from the Spanish Netherlands into the Dutch Republic.

By the 1600s, religion motivated the Spanish to expel the Moriscos, and the French to expel the Huguenots.

The movement of people as a result of the Ulster Plantations was intertwined with religion and politics. Politically, by placing Scottish populations into Northern Ireland, King James hoped to create a wider spread sense of loyalty to the crown Religiously, the Scottish people brought Protestantism into the largely Catholic region of Northern Ireland. Language, religion and genetics were changed as a result of this population movemen

Tudor         1485

🔹The Renaissance
🔹1Elizabethan Age (1558–1603) (Golden age of eng drama)

🈴TUDOR

1485 ⭕️ Henry VII

1500 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (world pop 500m)

1503 ‘MONA LISA’

and hence to 1600 the Baroque Era

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