➡️Mammalia  220

Subclass THERIA 160 (Shrew)

Model of the speciation of Hominini and Gorillini over the past 10 million years; the hybridization process within Hominini is indicated as ongoing during roughly 8 to 6 Mya.

The chimpanzee–human last common ancestor (CHLCA) is the last common ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee and bonobo) genera of Hominini. Due to complex hybrid speciation, it is not possible to give a precise estimate on the age of this ancestral population. While “original divergence” between populations may have occurred as early as 13 million years ago (Miocene), hybridization may have been ongoing until as recently as 4 million years ago (Pliocene).

In human genetic studies, the CHLCA is useful as an anchor point for calculating single-nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) rates in human populations where chimpanzees are used as an outgroup, that is, as the extant species most genetically similar to Homo sapiens.

late Cretaceous 85 Primates diverge

Cenozoic Era 65

1🔵PALEOGENE PERIOD 65
     🔹OLIGOCENE EPOCH 34 🟪1PRIMATES
➡️🔸Hominoidea (Apes – Great Apes & Lesser Apes)  28

________________
2 🔵NEOGENE PERIOD 23

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, paleontology, neurobiology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics.

Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous period, and the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene, around 55 million years ago.

➡️Hominids 15  the Great Apes

🔸Genus Homo starts splitting off from the chimpanzee Genus PAN 6

➡️hominins 3.3

THE PALEOLITHIC (STONE) AGE/ ICE AGE

LOWER PALEOLITHIC

🔹Homo erectus (Hominin)2.5

🔹Australopithecina 2.5

The Beginning of Pre-history

The Prehistoric Ages: How Humans Lived Before Written Records

For roughly 2.5 million years, humans lived on Earth without leaving a written record of their lives—but they left behind other kinds of remains and artifacts.

🔵 QUATERNARY PERIOD 2.5 *_______________
🔵THE AGE OF HUMANS intro + Hominoidea
🔴5 Hominidae the great apes
6 Pre-history begins/Genus Homo age of humans/hominina

 

🔹PLEISTOCENE EPOCH (ICE AGE)2.58

The Paleolithic (Stone) Age

🔹Homo erectus (Hominin)2.5

GENUS HOMO 2.4

👤Homo habilis 2.3

Acheulean lithics appear along with Homo erectus, some 1.8 million years ago, replacing the more primitive Oldowan industry used by A. garhi and by the earliest species of Homo

The Ice Age lasts nearly 2 million years

MODERN MAN

🔺H.heidelbergensis 800 lives in Africa & Europe for 500 years

🔹MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE EPOCH 780

🔺H.neanderthalensis 430

Oldest surviving early human footprints 325

👤ROOT ANCESTOR / AMH 315  (Speciation begins) H.sapiens

PRIMATES (The Age of Humans) (Quartenary / Ice age/Stone age 800 Intermediates

The Beginning of Pre-history (3.3m-5.3k)

The Beginning of Pre-history (3.3m-5.3k)

🔵 QUATERNARY PERIOD 2.5 *

🔹PLEISTOCENE EPOCH (ICE AGE)2.58

The Paleolithic (Stone) Age

🔹Homo erectus (Hominin)2.5

GENUS HOMO 2.4

👤Homo habilis 2.3

Acheulean lithics appear along with Homo erectus, some 1.8 million years ago, replacing the more primitive Oldowan industry used by A. garhi and by the earliest species of Homo

The Ice Age lasts nearly 2 million years

MODERN MAN

🔺H.heidelbergensis 800 lives in Africa & Europe for 500 years 

🔹MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE EPOCH 780

🔺H.neanderthalensis 430

Oldest surviving early human footprints 325

👤ROOT ANCESTOR / AMH 315  (Speciation begins) H.sapiens

🔵 QUATERNARY PERIOD 2.5 *

🔹PLEISTOCENE EPOCH (ICE AGE)2.58

The Paleolithic (Stone) Age

🔹Homo erectus (Hominin)2.5

GENUS HOMO 2.4

👤Homo habilis 2.3

Acheulean lithics appear along with Homo erectus, some 1.8 million years ago, replacing the more primitive Oldowan industry used by A. garhi and by the earliest species of Homo

The Ice Age lasts nearly 2 million years

MODERN MAN

🔺H.heidelbergensis 800 lives in Africa & Europe for 500 years 

🔹MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE EPOCH 780

🔺H.neanderthalensis 430

Oldest surviving early human footprints 325

👤ROOT ANCESTOR / AMH 315  (Speciation begins) H.sapiens

The Beginning of Pre-history (3.3m-5.3k)

🔵 QUATERNARY PERIOD 2.5 *

🔹PLEISTOCENE EPOCH (ICE AGE)2.58

The Paleolithic (Stone) Age

🔹Homo erectus (Hominin)2.5

GENUS HOMO 2.4

👤Homo habilis 2.3

Acheulean lithics appear along with Homo erectus, some 1.8 million years ago, replacing the more primitive Oldowan industry used by A. garhi and by the earliest species of Homo

The Ice Age lasts nearly 2 million years

MODERN MAN

🔺H.heidelbergensis 800 lives in Africa & Europe for 500 years 

🔹MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE EPOCH 780

🔺H.neanderthalensis 430

Oldest surviving early human footprints 325

👤ROOT ANCESTOR / AMH 315  (Speciation begins) H.sapiens

Parvorder: CATARRHINI 32
  [Superfamily Cercopithicoidea (Old World Monkeys 🔸Family Cercopithecidae)]
👤Superfamily: Hominoidea
[Family Hylobatidae (The great and lesser apes (18 gibbons)]
👤Family: HOMINIDAE 15m (Hominids) (the great apes OGPH) 15
 Subfamily 1 Ponginae / tribe Pongini(orangs only)
🔸Genus Pongo: orangutans
 Bornean orangutan, P. pygmaeus
 Sumatran orangutan, P. abelii
Tapanuli orangutan, P. tapanuliensis
👤Subfamily 2 HOMININAE (Hominins 12) (African Apes HPG)  12
 Tribe: Gorillini 🔸Genus Gorilla
G. gorilla (Western) G. beringei (Eastern)
👤Tribe: HOMININI (H.P.) 12
 Sub-tribe: PANINA
🔸Genus Pan (chimpanzees)
Bonobo, P. paniscus
 Common chimpanzee P. troglodytes
P.t.verus / troglodytes / schweinfurthii (3 s/species)
👤Sub-tribe: HOMININA (Hominins) 8
7-6 🔹The earliest candidate for hominin status is 🔹Sahelanthropus tchadensis,
6.0 🔹Homo splits off from the chimpanzee Genus PAN
5.8 🔹Orrorin tugenensis, oldest human ancestor may have walked on two legs
5.5 🔹Ardipithecus, “proto-human” sim traits as chimps/gorillas, forest-dwelling

Pre-History
GENUS HOMO
The Age of Mammals

🔵PALEOGENE PERIOD 65

🔹PALEOCENE EPOCH 

🔹EOCENE EPOCH 56 

🔹OLIGOCENE EPOCH 34 

🔸Catarrhini  30 🔸Cercopithecoidea 

🔸Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys) 🔸Hylobatidae (Lesser Apes)

2️⃣🔸Hominoidea (Apes – Great Apes & Lesser Apes)28

🔵NEOGENE PERIOD 23

🔹MIOCENE EPOCH   

🔸Hominidae Hominids / great apes” 15             

🔸The 1st hominin: Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7.6

🔸Genus Homo starts splitting off from the chimpanzee Genus PAN 6

🔹PLIOCENE EPOCH 5.33 

🔸HOMININI (3 subtribes)

🔸PANINA (Chimps)

🔸AUSTRALOPITHICINA 2.5 

🔸HOMININA ~ 

🔸3.3m HOMININS using stone tools

🟪👤➡️3️⃣Catarrhini  30

30 Parvorder🔹Catarrhini “Downward-nosed” primates: apes and old-world monkeys

28 Family 🔹Hominoidea  (Apes – Great Apes & Lesser – Hylobatidae (gibbons)

🔹Miocene Epoch

🔸Hominidae Hominids / great apes” 15     

🔹Pliocene Epoch 5.33

🔸4.4 Ardipithecus Ramidus  begins to roam the earth. In many ways Ardi has more in common with modern humans than with apes

♦️3.9 Human-like apes of the Australopithecus Afarensis (“Lucy”) species begin to roam the earth. Not necessarily more human-like

AUSTRALOPITHICINA 2.5

2.5 QUATERNARY PERIOD ice age.Paleo/stone age  / Genus Homo

Archaic Man & Anatomically modern man Anatomically modern man

 

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