Maternal (mtDNA) Migration Map

Your haplogroup is T2a1b1a

You’re viewing your migration map which shows the journey your ancestors may have taken for you to get where you are today. Click on “Coverage Map” below to see the regions where people with your haplogroup are living today.

Haplogroup T2a1b is around 11,000 years old. It has been associated with Neolithic farmers and the Bronze Age Yamnaya culture.

The mtDNA tree has around 26 main branches, known as mtDNA haplogroups, which are classified by letters A-Z. As with the paternal line, each mtDNA haplogroup has further sub clades, which are represented by letters and numbers. Every single person in the world today is descended from one of the main mtDNA haplogroups.

In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes.[4] Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

Cladistics involves construction of Phylogenetic trees on the basis of shared characters derived from one Ancestor.

Phylogenetic Tree
{The phylogenetic tree represents the evolutionary relationship of species believed to have a common ancestor. Humans represent one branch of this tree, which was built based on DNA and particularly SNP markers, which are small changes or mutations in the DNA that occur naturally over time}

{Linear pottery culture neolithic farmers
Changes in neo Fertile crescent near east
Agriculture spread from here via Anatolia movement if people genetics and ideas
Ice age refugia cover for motherline ancestors}

4.5k towards megalith

NOTES
The Human Genetic Tree
Taliban speak Pashtun !!

Various recent divergence associated with environmental pressures, e.g. light skin in Europeans and East Asians (KITLG, ASIP), after 30 ka;[55]Inuit adaptation to high-fat diet and cold climate, 20 ka

Haplogroup T2a1b is around 11,000 years old. It has been associated with Neolithic farmers and the Bronze Age Yamnaya culture.

Your motherline signature belongs to the T2a1b group.

The most likely location of its birth is within the Near East over 11,000 years ago, with a later movement into Europe (Pala et al., 2012). If the Near Eastern location of origin is correct, the early carriers of your motherline may have travelled to the Ice Age refugia there. This location acted as a respite from the Ice Age for the early carriers of your motherline (Pala et al., 2012). Although by 11,700 years ago the Ice Age was coming to an end, the refugia was still less extreme climatically than other parts of the earth. There is debate over the origin of T2a1b however, with arguments suggesting a European origin (Costa et al., 2013).

T2a1b has also been connected to Neolithic farmers, particularly amongst those of the Linear Pottery Culture  (Hay, 2016). The changes brought by the Neolithic Era first arose in the Fertile Crescent in the Near East. From this point of origin, the new ideas of agriculture spread across Europe via Anatolia, resulting in a movement of people, ideas, and genetics.

Today, your motherline is found in low frequencies across Europe and the Mediterranean. It is not found in high levels in any given population but appears most common in Bosnia, Egypt, and