➡️🔴1066 HOUSE OF GODWIN harold godwinson (jan to oct)
Edgar ethelring 2 months (disputed reign)
1066 william 1
1087 william 2 william rufus
1100 henry 1 henry beauclercIn 1066, a Norman expedition invaded and conquered England. The Norman dynasty established by William the Conqueror ruled England for over half a century before the period of succession crisis known as the Anarchy (1135–1154). Following the Anarchy, England came under the rule of the House of Plantagenet, a dynasty which later inherited claims to the Kingdom of France. During this period, Magna Carta was signed. A succession crisis in France led to the Hundred Years’ War(1337–1453), a series of conflicts involving the peoples of both nations. Following the Hundred Years’ Wars, England became embroiled in its own succession wars. The Wars of the Roses pitted two branches of the House of Plantagenet against one another, the House of York and the House of Lancaster. The Lancastrian Henry Tudor ended the War of the Roses and established the Tudor dynasty in 1485.
1066 may just be the most famous date in British history, but from a geneticist’s point of view, it is not all that interesting. There seems to be little to no genetic trace left by the Normans today, perhaps because they came across the channel in relatively small numbers. Whilst there was certainly devastation to the local populations following failed rebellions in the north, life for the surviving peasantry would not have been all that different following the Battle of Hastings. It has been almost a thousand years since this war for the English throne, and in that time the boundaries within England itself have changed remarkably little in places. As such, we see little in the way of genetic splits between different populations after 1066, as the political power of the Normans and their progeny largely held the country intact.countryside.

The same cannot be said however for the border regions of Wales, Scotland, and Ireland in the centuries following William the Conqueror’s invasion. Well into the 20th Century, wars and insurgencies have been fought over the rights to rule these territories, and so it is no surprise that we see genetic divergences occurring in these places. Cumbria and Northumberland form distinct clusters from one another during this period, whilst Northern Ireland and South West Scotland see a huge demographic shift due to the Ulster Plantations set up during the reign of King James I. South Wales also splits into eastern and western clusters at this time, due to a great influx of English settlers into Southeast Wales during the numerous wars fought for control here. As a result, many of the people from this part of Britain today have a unique mix of ancestry, with a strong Welsh component also intermingled with Anglo Saxon signatures.1044

The Chinese of the

Song dynasty are the first to describe gunpowder. Within a centure the Chinese begin to use early forms of guns.

1096-1291 Period of the Christian crusades, set up after increased Muslim interference in the free unhindered travel of Christian pilgrims towards Jerusalem. Godfrey de Bouillon was one of the leaders of the first crusade. Richard Lionheart was a key player in the third crusade.

1120 Creation of the Knights Templar. They do their best to protect pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem and act as storm troopers on the battlefield against Muslim armies.

1185 Japan enters its medieval/feudal era. Powerful family clans (Daimyo) rule Japan, who are only subordinate to the shogun, the military commander. The emperor is a figurehead, often compared to the role of the pope. The Daimyo have samurai soldiers working for them.

1202 Leonardo Fibonacci introduces his Fibonacci sequence, indicating that there’s a mathematical order to various things in nature. He uses an unrealistic example of breeding rabbits, but in the modern era we are finding examples of the Fibonacci sequence in trees, pineapples and at the DNA and atom level.

1207 The Mongols, under the leadership of Gengis Khan, begin their invasion of China and Central Asia.

1241 The Mongols are at the border with Germany, having crushed the Polish army of well-armed knights at Wroclaw, western Poland. The main force of the Mongols is working to conquer various Hungarian castles, but have control of the countryside. In December Ogedei Khan dies, ceasing Mongol military operations, as the leaders all rush back to Mongolia to appoint a successor.

Early Medieval (Byzantine) ( 500 – 1000)


Norman invasion of England in 1066 led to the defeat and replacement of the Anglo-Saxon elite with Norman and French nobles and their supporters. William the Conqueror and his successors took over the existing state system, repressing local revolts and controlling the population through a network of castles. The new rulers introduced a feudal approach to governing England, eradicating the practice of slavery but creating a much wider body of unfree labourers called serfs. The position of women in society changed as laws regarding land and lordship shifted. England’s population more than doubled during the 12th and 13th centuries, fuelling an expansion of the towns, cities and trade, helped by warmer temperatures across Northern Europe. A new wave of monasteries and friaries were established, while ecclesiastical reforms led to tensions between successive kings and archbishops. Despite developments in England’s governance and legal system, infighting between the Anglo-Norman elite resulted in multiple civil wars and the loss of Normandy.

1300 Pop. 4/ 1320 FAMINE in England (Agricultural crisis)
1348-49 🔵The Black Death reached England 1/3 died (It killed about 1/3 of the world’s population of 450m) The plague returned again and again.
The population severely reduced by perhaps 50%). 1350 (2 m). 1400 (pop 2.5 million )1400 back to 2/2.5m.
1425 War of the Roses
1440 🔵moveable printing 🔵end of war of roses
Columbus 🔵globalisation ➡️trade and people to the ➡️New World

The Early medieval period saw a series of invasions of Britain by the Germanic-speaking Saxons, beginning in the 5th century. Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were formed and, through wars with British states, gradually came to cover the territory of present-day England. Around 600, seven principal kingdoms had emerged, beginning the so-called period of the Heptarchy. During that period, the Anglo-Saxon states were Christianised (the conversion of the British ones had begun much earlier). In the 9th century, Vikings from Denmark and Norway conquered most of England. Only the Kingdom of Wessex under Alfred the Great survived and even managed to re-conquer and unify England for much of the 10th century, before a new serie