M3 Anglo-Saxon England 410 – 560

Migration 400 – 800. Asaxons

Migration (c.410–c.560)
Main article: Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
The end of Roman rule in Britain facilitated the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, which historians often regard as the origin of England and of the English people. The Anglo-Saxons, a collection of various Germanic peoples, established several kingdoms that became the primary powers in present-day England and parts of southern Scotland.[3]They introduced the Old English language, which largely displaced the previous British language. The Anglo-Saxons warred with British successor states in western Britain and the Hen Ogledd (Old North; the Brythonic-speaking parts of northern Britain), as well as with each other. Raids by Vikings became frequent after about AD 800, and the Norsemen settled in large parts of what is now England. During this period, several rulers attempted to unite the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, an effort that led to the emergence of the Kingdom of England by the 10th century

The migrations according to Bede, who wrote some 300 years after the event; there is archeological evidence that the settlers in England came from many of these continental locations
The traditional narrative of this period is one of decline and fall, invasion and migration; however, the archaeologist[26] Heinrich Härke stated in 2011:

It is now widely accepted that the Anglo-Saxons were not just transplanted Germanic invaders and settlers from the Continent, but the outcome of insular interactions and changes.[27]

Writing c. 540 Gildas mentions that, sometime in the 5th century, a council of leaders in Britain agreed that some land in the east of southern Britain would be given to the Saxons on the basis of a treaty, a foedus, by which the Saxons would defend the Britons against attacks from the Picts and Scoti in exchange for food supplies. The most contemporaneous textual evidence is the Chronica Gallica of 452 which records for the year 441: “The British provinces, which to this time had suffered various defeats and

The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons into Britain can be seen in the context of a general movement of Germanic peoples around Europe between the years 300 and 700, known as the Migration period (also called the Barbarian Invasions or Völkerwanderung). In the same period there were migrations of Britons to the Armorican peninsula (Brittany and Normandy in modern-day France): initially around 383 during Roman rule, but also c. 460 and in the 540s and 550s; the 460s migration is thought to be a reaction to the fighting during the Anglo-Saxon mutiny between about 450 to 500, as was the migration to Britonia (modern day Galicia, in northwest Spain) at about the same time.[26] The historian Peter Hunter-Blair expounded what is now regarded as the traditional view of the Anglo-Saxon arrival in Britain.[27] He suggested a mass immigration, with the incomers fighting and driving the sub-Roman Britons off their land and into the western extremities of the islands, and into the Breton and Iberian peninsulas.[28] This view is based on sources such as Bede, who mentions the Britons being slaughtered or going into “perpetual servitude”.[29] According to Härke the more modern view is of co-existence between the British and the Anglo-Saxons.[30][31][32] He suggests that several modern archaeologists have now re-assessed the invasion model, and have developed a co-existence model largely based on the Laws of Ine. The laws include several clauses that provide six different wergild levels for the Britons, of which four are below that of freeman.[33] Although it was possible for the Britons to be rich freemen in Anglo-Saxon society, generally it seems that they had a lower status than that of the Anglo-Saxons.

 

Discussions and analysis still continue on the size of the migration, and whether it was a small elite band of Anglo-Saxons who came in and took over the running of the country, or a mass migration of peoples who overwhelmed the Britons.[34][35][36][37] An emerging view is that two scenarios could have co-occurred, with large-scale migration and demographic change in the core areas of the settlement and elite dominance in peripheral regions.

WESSEX
886 Alfred
899 Edward the elder
924
927 Aethelstan 1st true king of england
939 edmund 1
946 eadred
955 eadwig
959 edgar the peaceful
975 edward the martyr
978 Aethelred the unready

➡️🔴1013 DENMARK INVADES sweyn forkbeard king on xmas day lasts for 41 days
1014 Aethelred returns from exile back to being king
1016 Edmund ironside april to oct (died in nov)
1016 HOUSE OF DENMARK TAKES OVER AGAIN cnut canute all eng xct wessex then all
1035 Harold Harefoot
1040 Harthacnut
1042 HOUSE OF WESSEX BACK ed the confessor

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 962 to 1800