Introduction Neolithic 11.7 / Prehistoric Britain

Ancient Mesopotamia

Writing/Bronze Age

2600 BC Sumerians & cuneiform

2🔹Classical Antiquity 800BC

2000 Greek settlement
800 – 480 bc archaic Greece
480 – 300 classical Greece 480-323
323-146 Hellenistic Greece

The Greeks
The Romans

Haplogroup R-L151

R-L151, also known as R-L11 and R1b1a2a1a, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup; a subclade of the broader haplogroup R1b (R-M343). It is most often found in males from Western Europe – especially Western France, Northern Spain, Great Britain, and Ireland.
Possible time of origin: 5,000 years
Possible place of origin: Central Europe
Ancestor: R1b (R-M343) · R-M269
Descendants: R-U106 · R-P312 · R-S1194 · R-A8053
Defining mutations: L11/PF6539/S127
Highest frequencies: Irish · British · German · French · Spanish


1000 BC Settlements Rome founded 753bc on the 21st April

800bc homer and the start of classical antiquity
500-400 classical Greece/Hellenistic 323-146
500bc-500ad Roman republis/empire

Ancient Rome
753 BC–476 AD
Territories of the Roman civilization: .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}   Roman Republic .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}   Roman Empire .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}   Western Roman Empire .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}   Eastern Roman Empire

Territories of the Roman civilization:

Capital Rome,several others during the late Empire, notably Constantinople and Ravenna.
Common languages Latin
Government Kingdom (753–509 BC)
Republic (509–27 BC)
Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Historical era Ancient history
753 BC
509 BC
• Octavian proclaimed Augustus
27 BC
476 AD

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire.[1] The civilisation began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, traditionally dated to 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The civilization was led and ruled by the Romans, alternately considered an ethnic group or a nationality. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world’s population at the time) and covering 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its height in AD 117.[2][3]

🈴 From about 750 BC the Greeks began 250 years of expansion,
Archaic Greece 700 – 400
🈴Classical Greece 510 – 320 BC
Hellenistic Era 300 to 31 BC
Roman Era 27 – 476AD Iron Age ends


ARCHAIC 750 – 320 bc
320 HELLENIC – 30
30 ROMAN 475

and hence to Medieval Times Medieval Times