Writing and the start of HISTORY Sumerian clay tablet, currently housed in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, inscribed with the text of the poem Inanna and Ebih by the priestess Enheduanna, the first author whose name is known Clay tablets were used in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC. The calamus, an instrument in the form of a triangle, was used to make characters in moist clay. People used to use fire to dry the tablets out. At Nineveh, over 20,000 tablets were found, dating from the 7th century BC; this was the archive and library of the kings of Assyria, who had workshops of copyists and conservationists at their disposal. This presupposes a degree of organization with respect to books, consideration given to conservation, classification, etc. Tablets were used right up until the 19th century in various parts of the world, including Germany, Chile, Philippines and the Saharan Desert. Cuneiform and Sumerian Writing Writing originated as a form of record keeping in Sumer during the fourth millennium BCE with the advent of cuneiform. Many clay tablets have been found that show cuneiform writing used to record legal contracts, create lists of assets, and eventually to record Sumerian literature and myths. Scribal schools have been found by archaeologists from as early as the second millennium BCE where students were taught the art of writing. Bronze Age 2,000 – 800 BC 1750-133bc Ancient Greece / first people of the Aegean Archaic Greece 700 – 400 Classical Greece 510 – 320 BC Hellenistic Era 300 to 31 BC (3,000-300 BC) Most recent common ancestor: sometime in this period lived the latest human that is the common ancestor of all present day humans, the rest having no present day descendants, or being ancestors of a subset of all present day humans. Roman Era 27 – 476AD Iron Age ends 🔵The Roman Era (27BC to 476ADAfter Jesus’ alleged execution (death only calculated in a much later century and most likely wrong), a Jewish cult, headed by the 12 apostles, spreads out from Jerusalem, telling the story of Jesus. They preach about heaven for followers, hell for disbelievers and sinners, and prophesize an upcoming apocalypse. Local Christian leaders are named Bishops. Non-Jews are accepted into the ranks of the religion and eventually take over the religion. Headquarters moves to Rome, where Christians are often persecuted by the polytheist Romans. 64 Nero blames a large fire in Rome on the Christians. 70 After a revolt, Romans recapture and largely destroy Jerusalem, including Solomon’s Temple. 117 Greatest expansion of the Roman empire. 136 After another revolt of the Jews, the Romans destroy Jerusalem, kill half a million people, and remove every Jew from Judea. Whoever is captured is either killed or sold as slaves. The Jews won’t have a homeland until 1948. 186 The sky turns red in China and Rome. The suspicion is that this was caused by the gigantic Hatepe volcanic eruption in New Zealand of an estimated 150 km3 DRE volume. 200 Japan is run by Himiko, a shaman queen who controls an alliance of tribes. At this point China is still united under the Han dynasty, which centuries ago followed up the initial Qin dynasty. 250 Strong military states, centered around powerful clans, begin to arise in Japan. Over time more and more inspiration is taken from China on how to govern society. 285 The Roman Empire is split in a western and eastern half. The eastern half becomes known as the Byzantine Empire and will last until 1453. 300 Yogic, shamanic and esoteric Buddhism techniques are all spread to China through monks as Po-Srimitra and Fotudeng, a century later followed by Kumarajiva. Clearly these men played a role in the development of the many forms of qi gong. 313 Constantine the Great, the first Christian Roman emperor, ends the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. 325 Constantine calls together the First Council of Nicea, in which the Christian religion is officially put on paper and Christianity (Catholicism) becomes the official religion of the Western Roman Empire. 326 Rome starts moving the 320 ton (weight without the base) Lateran Obelisk in the Egyptian City of Karnak to Alexandria. Later on the Obelisk is moved to Rome. A 1,000 ton obelisk is being prepared in the Aswan granite quarries of Egypt, but is never finished. 365 A 30 meter (100 feet) high tsunami strikes Alexandria, Egypt, and surrounding areas in the Mediterranean, killing many thousands. 400 Buddhism and Taoism are strongly mixing in China with Chinese Buddhists as Sengzhao and Tao Sheng. Yogic, esoteric Buddhist, and shamanic techings are included in the mix. 450-500 Estimated rule of King Uther Pendragon, the father of King Arthur. His prophet was Merlin, later described as a magician. 476 Collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the beginning of theDark Ages. The empire is destroyed by incursions of the Huns, an Asiatic tribe headed by Atilla the Hun, and several Germanic tribes, such as the Visigoths. Internally the Roman Empire has been destroyed by corruption, economic mismanagement, and a lack of natural resources. 482 The Merovingian king Clovis I unites the Franks, a diverse group of Germanic tribes, creating the ever expanding Frankish Kingdom. 500-800 The overkingdom of Dal Riata exists on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. 525 The monk Dionysius Exiguus comes up with the Anno Domini era, based on his estimate of the death of Jesus. It will take many centuries for the new Gregorian Calendar to replace the Roman Julian calendar. 🔵Roman Britain 43 AD the Romans invaded Britain The population of Roman Britain was probably about 4 million.Roman towns would seem small to us. The largest town, London, may have had a population of only 35,000. The next largest town was probably Colchester with a population of around 12,000.