APPENDIX Taxonomic Classification
Primate Line Hominid 4 Great Apes 15 HPGO
Hominins 12 Tribe hominini 12 Hominina 8
Homo split 6.0
Genus Homo 2.4
Root Ancestor 315 (earliest point for genomes)
👤Y-DNA ♓️Haplogroup A00 (“Y-chromosomal Adam”) 270
👥 🧰MIGRATION out of Africa (250-130)
👩🏼🦰mt-DNA ♓️Haplogroup L (“Mitochondrial Eve”) (230-150)
(MRCA) Homo sapiens appears 🧰 migrates across Asia and Europe 200
♦️💁🏼♀️A0-T (A-L1085) 200
💁🏼♀️♦️A1 (?P305) Africa161,300
🧰 H.sapiens left from northern Africa to colonize the Levant 100
👤ROOA A few nomads ventured OUT OF AFRICA 70
💁🏼♀️🔺BT (M94)(Africa) 80-70k 🔹Inbreeding/Neanderthal (1-4%DNA)
50 “Great leap forward”
6 🔵EUROPE (45-30)
(H M69 a branch which originated in Eastern Africa before spreading to the Indian subcontinent)
🔴R1 (M173) NWA ➡️ Europe 30
🔹The entire population of Europe c.16,000 and 11,000 averaged some 30,000
African genome furthest back 15
HISTORY Begins 5,000
Mediaeval 500 – 1500
🔵MY TREE ANCESTRY ETHNICITY
History 1500 – 1750
History 1750 – 1900
❌❌My ancestral Tree back to
❌❌My ancestral Links
🔵The Primate Line
15 MILLION HOMINIDS
Superfamily Hominoidea Apes: great apes and lesser apes (gibbons)
Hominidae (Hominids) (4 Great Apes) The Great Apes H.P.G.O.) 15
🔹Cercopithicoidea Old World Monkeys🔸Cercopithecidae
🔴Subfamily 1 Ponginae (orangs only)
🔹Genus Pongo: orangutans
Bornean orangutan, P. pygmaeus
Sumatran orangutan, P. abelii
Tapanuli orangutan, P. tapanuliensis
🔴Subfamily 2 Panina
🔹Genus Pan (chimpanzees)
Bonobo, P. paniscus
Common chimpanzee P. troglodytes
P.t.verus / troglodytes / schweinfurthii (3 s/species)
👤🔴Subfamily 3 : Homininae (Hominins 12) (African Apes HPG)
🔴Tribe Hominini (H.P.) 12
🔴Sub-tribe 3: HOMININA (Hominins) 8
8 First gorillas evolve (Orangs gorillas bonobos diverge)
Western gorilla, G. gorilla
Eastern gorilla, G. beringei
7-6 🔹The earliest candidate for hominin status is 🔹Sahelanthropus tchadensis,
6.0 🔹Homo splits off from the chimpanzee Genus PAN
5.8 🔹Orrorin tugenensis, oldest human ancestor may have walked on two legs
5.5 🔹Ardipithecus, “proto-human” sim traits as chimps/gorillas, forest-dwelling
50,000 “Great leap forward”
human culture starts to change much more rapidly than before; people begin burying their dead ritually; create clothes from animal hides; and develop complex hunting techniques, such as pit-traps.
50,000 colonises eurasia oceania
For the duration of the Paleolithic, human populations remained low, especially outside the equatorial region. The entire population of Europe between 16,000 and 11,000 BP likely averaged some 30,000
Humankind gradually evolved from early members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis, who used simple stone tools—into anatomically modern humans as well as behaviorally modern humans by the Upper Paleolithic.
16,000-11,000 years ago: Caucasian Hunter-Gatherer (Caucasoid phenotype) expansion to Europe
13,000–10,000 years ago: Late Glacial Maximum, end of the Last glacial period, climate warms, glaciers recede.
13,000–11,000 years ago: Earliest dates for the domestication of the sheep.
🔵Holocene Epoch 11.7
11,700 Modern people reach the Americas
🔸T2a1b haplogroup near east old bronze Yamnaya steppes,russia culture
🔸Linear pottery culture neolithic farmers
🔸Changes in neo Fertile crescent near east
🔸Agriculture spread from here via Anatolia movement of people genetics and ideas
🔸Ice age refugia cover for motherline ancestors
11,000 years ago (9,000 BC): Emergence of Jericho, which is now one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
10,500 years ago (8,500 BC): Earliest supposed date for the domestication of cattle.
6,000 years ago (4000 BC): Civilizations develop in the Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent region (around the location of modern-day Iraq). Earliest supposed dates for the domestication of the horse and for the domestication of the chicken, invention of the potter’s wheel.
5,700 years ago: (3700 to 3600 BC): Minoan culture begins on Crete.
5,500 years ago: (3600 to 3500 BC): Uruk period in Sumer. First evidence of mummification in Egypt.
5,500: oldest known depiction of a wheeled vehicle (Bronocice pot, Funnelbeaker culture)
5,300 years ago: (3300 BC): Bronze Age begins in the Near East Newgrange is built in Ireland. Hakra Phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation begins in the Indian subcontinent.
5,000 Earliest known writing
5,000–2,000 years ago (3,000-300 BC) Most recent common ancestor: sometime in this period lived the latest human that is the common ancestor of all present day humans, the rest having no present day descendants, or being ancestors of a subset of all present day humans.
5,000 Earliest known writing
4,000 to 3,500 BC
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia develop the world’s first civilisation
3,600-3200 BC🔹Sumer the cradle of civilisation
It seems the first people who wrote were the Sumerians and the Egyptians
🔹UR city in Sumer south mesopotamia (Iraq) Society Jobs Houses Temple
Sumerians had invented the wheel
Writing pictogram to cuneiform script
👤3,000-300 BC Most recent common ancestor👤
(Sometime in this period lived the latest human that is the common ancestor of all present day humans, the rest having no present day descendants, or being ancestors of a subset of all present day humans)
♦️Ancient -5 – 500
🔵The Roman Era (27BC to 476AD)
♦️♦️Start of My Ancestry proper♦️♦️
If one considers as a function of time t the number of a given individual’s ancestors who were alive at time t, it is likely that for most individuals this function has a maximum at around 1200 AD. Some geneticists believe that everybody on Earth is at least 50th cousin to everybody else.