DNA : Haplogroup Migration Map – BURNT SIENNA
Haplogroup R1b and its subgroups are predominantly found in western Europe and the British Isles. It is the most common haplogroup in Europe and a subgroup of R1b is believed by some researchers to be Celtic.
A haplogroup is a genetic population group of people who share a common ancestor on the patrilineal or matrilineal line.
Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations.
Y-DNA testing involves short tandem repeat (STR) and, sometimes, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing of the Y-chromosome. The Y-chromosome is present only in males and reveals information on the patrilineal line. These tests can provide insight into the recent (via STRs) and ancient (via SNPs) genetic ancestry. A Y-chromosome STR test will reveal a haplotype, which should be similar among all male descendants of a male ancestor. SNP tests are used to assign people to a patrilineal haplogroup, which defines a much larger genetic population. A Y-DNA test is typically used in surname research and results are collated within surname DNA projects.
Mitochondrial DNA testing
Main article: Mitochondrial DNA tests
mtDNA testing involves sequencing or testing the HVR-1 region, HVR-2 region or both. An mtDNA test may also include the additional SNPs needed to assign people to a matrilineal haplogroup. Family Tree DNA offers a full mitochondrial sequence (FMS) test which sequences the entire mitochondrial genome.
Autosomal DNA testing
Main article: Autosomal DNA