• Unlike double-stranded DNA, RNA is a single-stranded molecule[1] in many of its biological roles and consists of a much shorter chain of nucleotides.[2] However, RNA can, by complementary base pairing, form intrastrand (i.e., single-strand) double helixes, as in tRNA.
  • While the sugar-phosphate “backbone” of DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose instead[3]. Ribose has a hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2′ position, whereas deoxyribose does not. The hydroxyl groups in the ribose backbone make RNA less stable than DNA because it is more prone to hydrolysis.
  • The complementary base to adenine in DNA is thymine, whereas in RNA, it is uracil, which is an unmethylated form of thymine.[4]

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