Hominids & Hominins

Hominins to Genus Homo

The Evolution of life might be better imagined  as a felled tree with its branches of animal species not having prominence  one over the other Man is not at the top … looking down on all the other “lesser” animals of species, leading to Homo sapiens

Human evolution, the process by which human beings developed on Earth from now-extinct primates. Viewed zoologically, we humans are Homo sapiens, a culture-bearing, upright-walking species that lives on the ground and very likely first evolved in Africa about 315 kya We are now the only living members of what many zoologists refer to as the human tribe, Hominini, but there is abundant fossil evidence to indicate that we were preceded for millions of years by other hominins, such as Australopithecus, and that we lived for a time contemporaneously with at least one other member of our genus, Homo neanderthalensisWe and our predecessors have shared the Earth with other apelike primates, from the modern-day gorilla to the long-extinct Dryopithecus.We and the extinct hominins are somehow related; we and the apes, both living and extinct, are also somehow related and is accepted by anthropologists and biologists everywhere.

PRIMACY

60 million The first primates appear.

30 million🟪🟪 Hominoidea super family (Hominoids all apes)

   A Hylobatidae Lesser Apes (the gibbons)

   🟪B Hominidae (Hominids or Great Apes) a clade 7 extant sp

         1 Ponginae (2 Orangs)

         2 Homininae sub-family

             1 Gorillini (2 Gorillas)

               Hominini  tribe

                   2 Panini  2Pan (Bonobos) / Pan troglodytes (Chimps)

20 million The first hominids (great apes) appear. Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and humans
4.4 million  Ardipithecus Ramidus, or “Ardi“, begins to roam the earth.
3.9 million  Human-like apes of the Australopithecus Afarensis (“Lucy“) arise

8 – 6 MYAFirst gorillas evolve. Later, chimp and human lineages diverge

Dramatic changes in world climate Most of the world became cold — really cold.

This lady has removed herself to her beignoir chaude to be re-invigorated with balm , Eau de Chaude and

This plunge in temperature began one of four distinct periods of frigid temperatures known as an Ice Age. Each of these frigid periods lasted from 10-15k

🔹Lower Pleistocene 2.5m-781000 (archaic humans)

At the beginning of the Paleolithic, hominins were found primarily in eastern Africa, east of the Great Rift Valley. Most known hominin fossils dating earlier than one million years before present are found in this area, particularly in Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia.

🔵QUATERNARY PERIOD (2.58) 🔴PALEOLITHIC AGE / 🔴THE STONE AGE

🔵PLEISTOCENE EPOCH  (2.5m – 11.7k)most new / THE ICE AGE

🔹🔹🔹LOWER PLEISTOCENE  2.5m-781000 (archaic humans)

🔸Gelasian Age 2.5-1.8

Homo habilis, Australopithecus, Homo erectus,Homo ergaster,and related species

♦️Lower Paleolithic Age (2.5 -250,000)

2.6 🔵THE ICE AGE/PALEOLITHIC  (Stone Age)

2.4 👤Genus HOMO 2.4 Homo, a human-like form of hominids (or apes), starts to appear.

🔴2.4 👤Genus HOMO 2.4 Homo, a human-like form of hominids (apes) appears

2.3 Homo habilis, Australopithecus, H.erectus, H.ergaster,and related species

2.0 from One of the australopithicines ⬇️genus Homo

e.g. Homo habilis)➡️ H. sapiens

2.0 🔺Homo ergaster, in Africa

1.9 🔺H.rudolfensi

🔵Calabrian Age 1.8-780

1.7 🔺Earliest Hominids Africa ➡️Georgia,probably Homo erectus made stone tools

🔴1.7 Migration Earliest Hominids from Africa ➡️Georgia 1.7

1.6 Poss 1st use of fire suggested by discoloured sediments Koobi Fora, Kenya.

1.5 🔺Homo Erectus,ancestor of H.sapiens – 1st hunter-gatherer/migrated OOA)

🔵1.5 THE 4 ICE AGES

Dramatic changes in world climate started taking place about 1.5 million years ago. Most of the world became cold — really cold.

1.2 🔺Homo erectus (ergaster) devolops dark skin Earliest cooking

800   Happisburg Norfolk footprints

790 H. erectus/ergaster made fires at Bnot Ya’akov Bridge, Israel.

765 Neanderthals diverged from modern humans

🔴600🔺Homo Heidelbergensis lives Africa & Europe

500 🔺Homo neanderthalensis

🔴2.3 Homo habilis (🔹Gelasian Age 2.5-1.8)

⬇️genus Homo ➡️ H. sapiens
🔴2.0 Homo ergaster, in Africa
🔴1.9 H.rudolfensi

(🔹Calabrian Age 1.8-781)The earliest hominids left Africa about 1.7 million years ago, arriving at sites such as Dmanisi in Georgia, where hominids (probably Homo erectus) made stone tools suggestive of those from Africa.♦️1.8/5 H.erectus (First hunter-gatherer/migrated 🔺OOA)
🔹1.6 Poss 1st use of fire suggested by discoloured sediments Koobi Fora, Kenya.
♦️1.5 Homo Erectus, ancestor of Homo sapiens, appears. Or is it heidelbergensis Originating in Africa and spreading to Asia.

5.8 MYA

Orrorin tugenensis, oldest human ancestor thought to have walked on two legs

5.5 MYA

Ardipithecus, early “proto-human” shares traits with chimps and gorillas, and is forest-dwelling

4 MYA

Australopithecines appear. They have brains no larger than a chimpanzee’s – with a volume around 400 – 500 cm3 -, but walk upright on two legs. First human ancestors to live on the savannah

3.2 MYA

Lucy, famous specimen of Australopithecus afarensis, lives near what is now Hadar, Ethiopia

2.7 MYA

Paranthropus, lives in woods and grasslands, has massive jaws for chewing on roots and vegetation. Becomes extinct 1.2 MYA

2.5 MYA

Homo habilis appears. Its face protrudes less than earlier hominids, but still retains many ape features. Has a brain volume of around 600 cm3

Hominids start to use stone tools regularly, created by splitting pebbles – this starts Oldowan tradition of toolmaking, which last a million years

Some hominids develop meat-rich diets as scavengers, the extra energy may have favoured the evolution of larger brains